All definitions are taken from the IAPOP ( or MAXFXX websites (
and/or Arnoldand Amy Mindell’s works, except where otherwise noted.
Having an unknown or non-causal connection. See teleology.

Ally or Allies
Dream-figures, spirits, entities which may be threatening, disturbing or scarey but when wrestled with become an aid to personal power.
The term Ally is taken from Castenada’s books about his apprenticeship with Don Juan. Allies appear as dream-figures, spirits, entities which may be threatening, disturbing or scarey but when wrestled with become an aid to personal power. (The Shaman’s Body)

Amplification (principle)
It’s the act of helping the process unfold with noticing and following its inner and external signals and facilitating yourself and the other in bringing more awareness to what’s happening in the very moment. You notice it and keep on seeing it, listening to it, feeling it or doing it or not, but with much more awareness. At the same time you need to help yourself and the other do the same.

Assemblage Point
The Assemblage Point is the point at which your identity forms. Various tools and techniques can be learnt to move your assemblage point so as to access different identities and roles. From each assembled point there are different views and perspectives on reality. (The Shaman’s Body)

Attention and Awareness
Awareness is the ability to notice phenomenological experience. These experiences are
apprehended through our attention. The First Attention (Consensus Reality Awareness). The awareness needed to perceive outer situations and information associated with everyday reality.
Second Attention (Dreamland Awareness) is the ability to notice and believe in the uncommon events in our inner and outer environments, even when our perception disagrees with the way we think the world should look and act. Second attention is the ability to notice, focus on and unfold signals from ‘dreamland’. It is a tool for helping us stand outside our consensus realities and see how nature is expressing itself in dreamland. Third attention (Essence Awareness) is the awareness of the Essence level or sentient awareness. This includes the ability to perceive “flirts”– those tiny signals that are not yet manifest but live on the fringe of our awareness. Catching and unfolding “flirts” allows us to enter the essence level. So, awareness In Process Oriented Psychology or Process work is a term used to mean fully inhabiting a range of feelings, viewpoints, sensations and perspectives and the capacity to do that. It includes noticing differentiation of experience as well as being able to shift one’s momentary identity between the different perspectives. It also includes a
simultaneous recognition of these shifts and processes.

Big U
The Big U is a system-mind concept. U stands for Universe, or the biggest part of a group or of a person. A system can be the whole world, or a group, or an individual, or even a particle. In any and all cases, the Big U connects to the piloting-guiding function of the system’s mind (or more exactly, its quantum mind). It is experienced as a kind of dreamlike organizer of the system and includes all of the parts, people, and situations involved.

The specific path in which information is received. Examples include: visual, auditory,
proprioceptive, kinesthetic, relationship, spiritual, and world channels refer to information that is collected by seeing, hearing, feeling, moving, in relationship with another person, in relationship with a divine, shamanic, or spiritual entity, or through an outer event.

Cold Spot (or cool spot)
A Cold Point and a time when you come to a temporary resolution, the energies are calm and the atmosphere quiets after an Escalation during a group process.

Gaining access to the Big U is a crucial part of worldwork facilitation. The Big U is the potential facilitator; it is a compass, which is open to all directions and sides and has compassion, meaning a combination of “compass” openness and interest in all vectors. Compassion mixes both openness and awareness.

Conflict (causal)
Conflict is the product of unmet needs and unrecognized differences and is often the result of feared tensions in plans, goals or actions.

Conflict (acausal)
From a non-causal perspective, two aspects of the background dreaming are manifesting as polarities so that they may be resolved.

Awareness of awareness, i.e., an ability to be aware that one is aware of phenomenological experience.

The facilitator can help gain consensus by discovering what direction the group would like to go first, knowing that all of the issues and feelings are important and need to be discussed at some point. Whatever theme is chosen, it is a large umbrella topic that has many sub-themes within It, some of which may include other topics mentioned by the group during filtering. An agreement to address a certain topic or follow a direction for a limited time. (Leader with Presence , 2012)

Consensus Reality
The material level of daily existence which most people generally experience and agree upon most of the time. The level of reality that most people in a normal state of consciousness would agree on. In consensus reality ” these are words, this is a page, this is a glossary defining terms”.

Death Path
The path to the death (of one’s own Ego or primary identity), for those who start with working with theirselves and dealing with their own edges. (The Shaman’s Body)

Deep Democracy
Deep democracy is a basic concept as well as an elder’s multidimensional metaskill (feeling attitude) towards life which recognizes the basically equal importance of consensus reality issues and concerns (facts, issues, problems, people) dreamland figures (roles, ghosts, directions), and the essence (common ground) that connects everyone. A belief that there is wisdom in, under, or behind all views and that there must be freedom for the expression of diverse opinions and experiences so that the deeper wisdom came be understood and so that sustainable solutions to complex problems can be found and healthier communities can evolve. Deep democracy is a basic concept as well as a multidimensional metaskill (feeling attitude) towards life which recognizes the basically equal importance of consensus reality issues and
concerns (facts, issues, problems, people) dreamland figures (roles, ghosts, directions), and the essence (common ground) that connects everyone.

Double (The)
See The Double

Double Signal
An unintended signal that sends a message that is incongruous with the intended message. A double signal means that someone is conveying one message that they are identifying with or intending in a given moment, while simultaneously expressing something else with their words or body that is further away from their awareness. It can be very helpful to focus on double signals and to give theperson time to investigate what that signal is expressing and to bring that information  into the conversation.

Dreambody and Dreaming Body
The intelligent and creative, democratic, multi-dimensional entity organizing every relationship in and out of its living system with its partners and the various other entireties it belongs to. Body Dreaming is a holographically structured being that has different properties (see The Dreamingbody in Relationship)

Dream Figure/Spirts/Archetypes
A psychological symbol—similar to an archetype in Jungian psychology and to spirits in Shamanism. Used to describe an unconscious force that is affecting an atmosphere or influencing behavior.

The metaphysical or spiritual experience and meaning behind behavior, signals, symptoms, and disturbances.

Dreaming up
The concept of the Dreaming up is part of the process-oriented paradigm that differs from the traditional way of viewing individuals as separate and distinct from each other, rather it considers them interconnected through their dream processes, their limitations, and their Exchange of subtle signals. When the client emits certain unconscious signals, for example, the therapist’s body feels them and reacts to them: the therapist changes. And viceversa. If inadvertently I send double signals in communication, I can create the phenomenon of Dreaming up, or I can unconsciously make the other act as a figure of my inner world. The other changes, and in return I also. (see The Dreamingbody in Relationship)

Dreaming While Awake 24 h
A body of techniques for lucid dreaming 24 hours a day. (Dreaming While Awake)

Working with dreams: not only night dreams.

An edge is the limit of what we can perceive, think, communicate, or believe we can do. Structurally speaking, an edge separates the primary from the secondary process. Facilitators use a range of tools to help a person go over their edge and complete what she or he is trying to say, do or be. Alternately, the facilitator can help the person by dreaming into the process and going over that edge for her or him. Edges also exist at the boundaries to different worlds (see Assemblage Point)
A communication block that occurs when an individual or group, out of fear, represses something that is trying to emerge. For instance, at the gathering I mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, the issues of race and homophobia didn’t arise until the afternoon. The group has an edge against these topics. The woman who brought them up felt they couldn’t earlier, because the group edge prohibited these topics and the anger they would occasion. Likewise, the man with mainstream views did not feel free to criticize me at first. Only after the group allowed the topics of race and homosexuality to be brought out, did a new edge emerge for him as a mainstream person. His edge was not only to criticise the leadership, but also to dislike both the topics and the people talking about them.

An edge refers to a moment when someone speaks but is unable to complete what she or he is saying due to personal reasons or because of actual or felt group restrictions. It can be very helpful to ask the person why it is so difficult to speak and, if circumstances allow, to help the person go over that edge and complete what she or he is trying to say. Alternately, the facilitator can help the person by imagining and going over that edge for her or him.

Eldership is the ability to understand, empathize with and support conflicted individuals or groups on all sides of an issue simultaneously and compassionately. It is a universal metaskill; coming from your deepest self and its direction. This skill involves Deep Democracy plus the sense the world is your child -interweaving the sense of the equal importance of individual viewpoints and the grand mystery behind it all. This metaskill arises from the compassion of the Big U.

A term for non-consensual phenomenons or contents, the subjective experiences which are also referred to as experiences of the Dreamland. The term emergent or emerging is often easier to explain within organizations, as opposed to the technical jargon of Dreamland.

The act of creating enmity deep-seated, often mutual hatred. The process of labeling other individuals or groups as evil, bad, wrong, or the source of difficulty.

A metaphor borrowed from quantum physics meaning the individual or group experience in which parts are connected not only directly, but through magical and nonlocal means.

Facilitate means to help others, individuals or groups (or even themselves), to cope with change and natural growth of the various levels of reality and through the various altered states of consciousness.

The way we respond to certain stimulations like body signals, events, situations, …

Feedback Oriented Interventions
Feedback Oriented Interventions are interventions based on the moment-to-moment, non-verbal and verbal communications of a client, group, or individual. They are interventions that are designed and modified according to the specific moment-to-moment feedback of the client, group, or  individual.

An emotional atmosphere or a felt sense of a particular shared consciousness that seems to be transmitted by acausal non-Newtonian means. Or, an area in space within which lines of force are in operation. It is simultaneously everywhere with everyone. It is here and now in its entirety, whenever we merely think of it. We sense that vague atmosphere with our feelings, fantasies and hallucinations and are able to therefore differentiate between roles or parts. (The Leader with Presence, 2012)

We use the word “flirt” in the most general sense of something trying to catch our attention. A flower for example, may “flirt” with us (and vice versa!). The flirt happens so quickly that we usually pass it by or forget it. Yet in communicating, the flirt plays an important role as the predecessor to signals, and potentially difficult communication situations.

Fluidity refers to an ability to notice the one-sidedness of one’s own momentary experience or thought and shift into or support other experiences or thoughts.

Framing and Levels
The facilitator can frame a discussion by remarking about the different levels or dimensions people are speaking about. E.g. One person may speak about (Consensus Reality) issues and outer action while someone else is speaking about feelings (Dreamland). Then, someone else might speak about a common ground (Essence) that unites us. This clash of levels can be the source of conflict itself!
The facilitator can frame things by saying that there are many levels arising simultaneously; one person is talking about outer action while another is speaking about her feelings. Ask which direction to focus on while remembering the others.

A usually religious movement or point of view characterized by a return to fundamental principles, by rigid adherence to those principles, and often by intolerance of other views and opposition to secularism.

Ghost Role
A role in a field which is unoccupied (no one is representing or expressing the role) but which is nonetheless felt to be present. Ghosts are a part of dreamland. They refer to those things that are spoken about but not directly represented by anyone in a given group. Some typical ghosts are ancestors who are spoken about but who are no longer present, the “bad” person who is not in the room, the environment, etc. Getting into, representing, + expressing the views + thoughts of ghosts can be important keys to processes. And it is Important to know that everyone shares these ghost roles.

Ghost Roles
Ghosts are a part of Dreamland. They refer to those things that are spoken about but not directly represented by anyone in a given group. Some typical ghosts are ancestors who are spoken about but who are no longer present, the “bad” person who is not in the room, the environment, etc. Getting into, representing, + expressing the views + thoughts of ghosts can be important keys to processes. And it is Important to know that everyone shares these ghost roles.

High Dream
High Dream is a concept used to define a person’s or group’s highest hopes about the potential of a given situation, and it is most Often activated in regard to relationship or community life. A High Often Dream is connected to the mythic aspectof a relationship or a community, and it is related to a person’s unconscious spirituality.

Hot Spot
A hot spot is a moment in a group process or in relationships when a strong reaction occurs. An intense moment in which there is a strong emotional clash between individuals or the whole group or when something forbidden or intense happens that causes everyone to become silent or frozen. When hot spots are not focused on, they are the source of future escalations. Therefore, it is helpful to notice hot spots, to slow down, and go deeper into the feelings of each side of the conflict. Hot spots can be the doorway to deepening the process. In a group setting, a moment of attack and defence, fight and flight, ecstasy, apathy or depression.

The Hunter learns certain minimal disciplines in order to find and connect with a deeper power. The practice of the hunter is to study processes and to become disciplined in hunting signals and doublesignals.

The way we perceive and recognize ourselves (primary identity, I’m this and that….) or recognize with difficulty or not at all recognize ourselves (secondary identity, that’s not me, I’m not so…).

Being a member of the original inhabitants of a particular place.

Inner Figure
An archetype, or an anthropomorphized role or viewpoint, e.g., inner child or inner critic, the one who says I should study vs. the one who says I should phone my lover.

Working with yourself alone while relating to others or to the outside, listening to yourself, facilitating yourself with your own process…according to the bigger process…

Low Dream
Low Dream is a concept used to define a person’s or group’s greatest fears about the potential of a given situation, and it is most Often activated in regard to relationship or community life. Also a low dream, like the high dream, is Often connected to the mythic aspectof a relationship or a community, and it is related to a person’s unconscious spirituality.

The role, individual, or inner figure who notices what is happening on a deeper than normal level and communicates about it thereby bringing it to awareness. This can happen intra-psychically (with one’s self) , in relationship, or in groups.

A standpoint that a person steps into momentarily to help process a conflict by supporting or challenging certain other individuals or standpoints.

The feeling with which theory, information and techniques are applied. (See Amy Mindell’s Metaskills: The Spiritual Art of Therapy for a complete analyses of this concept) The skill, technique, or tone a person uses in intervening or expressing a metaposition. The meta-quality, or feeling behind the use of a skill. The “way” you say something or do something is a metaskill which can be harsh, helpful, compassionate, playful, scientific etc. The skill, technique, or tone a person uses in intervening or when expressing a metaposition. Or, the meta-quality, or feeling behind the use of a skill. Or, the feeling attitude with which theory, information and techniques are applied. The term “meta-skills” implies that, in addition to noticing these attitudes, we pick them up and use their energy, using our feelings and attitudes in the service
of the community, group or person we work with.


Moods are like the weather, atmospheric conditions that come upon you. Moods are related to our attachments, personal history and sense of self-importance. (see Phantoms)


The Nagual has various meaning in Castenda’s stories about Don Juan. One definition is that it is the unknowable, that which can be experienced but not described in everyday language (similar to the Tao that can’t be told of Taoism). It can appear as threatening or terrifying. This is contrasted with another concept, the Tonal, which refers to the social constructed reality or Consensus Reality (see Attention) (The Shaman’s Body)


Excessive concern for the interests of one’s nation without regard for the interests of other individuals or nations.

Non Consensus Reality

This is a subjective level of dream-like experience, including body sensations, altered states of consciousness, subtle feelings and imagination.

Non Locality

The experience of interconnection or synchronicity, beyond time or space, also the sense of being not only located in your body, but spread out through the universe.

Not Knowing

In processwork we do not know what is good or bad for the other so we do not want to know in advance what will happen or push the events towards a precise direction. We believe in the deep intelligence of the process and we remain confidently willing to let the natural course of internal and external events as they occur show us the way, keeping the mind open and without prejudices. Not Knowing can be considered a metaskill (beginner’s mind) that helps us remain process oriented.

Open Forum

Structured, person-to-person or cyberspace, deeply democratic meetings, in which everyone feels represented and which includes social issues as well as the deepest feelings and dreams of the participants. The Open Forum method emphasizes the more linear style of worldwork in which the facilitator helps events go more slowly and intervenes more often.

Parallel Worlds

Each feeling, each vector is a “parallel world” in the sense that it is usually not directly in touch with the world of the other vectors and feelings. This is a central worldwork situation, One group of people frequently lives in a “parallel world”, relative to other peoples. We live next to one another, but while we stay in Consensus Reality, like parallel lines, might not often meet.

Participant Facilitator

In WW, the concept of leader and facilitator is understood basically as a shared role. Therefore the old concept of participant changed, we call the new participant or “citizen” a “participant facilitator.” (just as the leader/facilitator is leader-follower etc.)

Personal History

Stories we construct about who we are that also help construct our idea of reality. This is a familial, cultural and social construction as well as a personal one.


The Phantom is who we are when our identity is being influenced by ghost roles of which we are unaware. Related to this are out tendencies to be possessed by moods which also control us rather than being processed. Phantoms are concerned by success or failure and have attachments, rather than appreciating the world as a hunting ground in which to be transformed.

Polarity and Polarization

A pair of roles, views or positions, that exists in oppositional relationship to each other. A process where individuals in conflict become stuck in opposing roles, e.g., seeing oneself as all good and another as evil or all bad, or believing that either liberal or conservative solutions will solve all problems.


The ability of a person to be forceful or effective in controlling others, expressing his or her views, or standing up for a position in the face of opposition.


A non-technical term for sentient experience. The term pre-emergent is often easier to explain within organizations, as opposed to the technical jargon of sentient essence. (see also Emergent)

Primary Process
The underlying motivator or dream figure behind a group’s or individual’s normal identity. It is a process because it changes with time.
The self description, methods and culture with which you and your group identify yourselves. “Process” in primary process emphasises how identity changes in time.
Connected to our personal identity, our common, habitual identity and focus, reflected in selfdescription, and the culture with which you, me, and our group identify ourselves. “Process” in primary process emphasizes how identity changes in time.

A coherent and meaningful flow of signals and experiences, that underlie problematic, painful and creative events The flow of overt and covert communication within an individual family, group, culture or environment. Process includes expressible feelings, dreams and spiritual experiences.

Process Mind
This is the deepest part of ourselves, associated with a part of our body, and the spirit of an earth location. Just as the earth underlies all forms of human and natural activities and weather in the biosphere, the process mind is the dreaming intelligence behind all our experiences. The “PM” is a key all facilitators need to work with all worlds and peoples.

A methodology for finding deeper meaning in human experience by following signals.

Secondary Process

Aspects of ourselves that we, as individuals or groups do not tend or want to identify with. Often we project these aspects onto people we view as “other.” We may marginalize or admire these qualities, creating inferior or superior traits in other groups.


A relative position in society, an organization, community, or relationship that occurs based on perceived differences in various dimensions such as gender, race, age, orientation, appearance, health, education, language, financial status, psychological or spiritual awareness, etc. A conscious or unconscious, social or personal ability or power arising from culture, community support, personal psychology and/or spiritual power. Whether you earned or inherited your rank, it organises much of your communication behaviour, especially at edges and in hotspots. (The Leader with Presence , 2012)


The science of flow, which in process work is both a science and an art connected to fluidity and movement between levels and parts.

Role and Roles

A view point or function within a field, generally occupied by various people at different times. The concept of roles belongs to the dreamland aspect of group process. While each role such as boss, underling, patient, or helper seems to be located with a given individual or group, it is actually a timespirit that needs to be filled by many of us. In other words, each role is much great than anyone individual or group. And, each of us is bigger than anyone role. In other words, people are not roles

Role Switching
There is a natural tendency to role switch. That is, we find that we may identify with a particular role but then at a given point notice that we feel pulled to represent another role, or that we are in another role. For example, someone in a social service organization who is identified as a helper for others who are suffering and in need of care, may begin to speak about her or his own suffering. At that moment, she or he has switched roles into the “others” who need care. Noticing and allowing yourself to switch roles is an awareness practice; sensing when you are in one role and when you
begin to move to another. This is another aspect of dreamland in which we share roles. Noticing and allowing yourself to switch roles is an awareness practice; sensing when you are in one role and when you begin to move to another. This awareness helps develop skills to move the Assemblage Point.

Roll or Timespirit
A cultural rank, position or view point that depends on time and place. Rolls and timespirits change rapidly because they are a function of the moment and locality. Rolls in groups are not fixed but fluid. They are filled by different individuals and parties over time, keeping the rolls in a constant state of flux.

Second Training
The first training is about rational, logical information that can be easily expressed verbally and shared with others such as signals, and the content of issues. The 2nd training is about learning to follow ineffable guidance from mythic sources such as the land.

Secondary Process
The underlying motivator or dream figure behind a group’s or individual’s disavowed identity. It is a process because it changes with time. The secondary process includes experiences that we do not perceive as belonging to our personal identity. We perceive them either as happening to us or as emotions and experiences that we do not identify with such as anger, fear, power, and spiritual connection. Often we project these aspects onto people we view as the enemy or people who we see as being inherently different than us. We may marginalize or admire these qualities, assuming inferior or superior traits in other groups. Aspects of ourselves that we, as individuals or groups, prefer not to identify with. Often we project these aspects onto people we view as our “enemy”. We may marginalise or admire these qualities, creating inferior or superior traits in other groups.

Sentient Level

This refers to the deepest and most subtle level of subjective experience. There are no polarities, only a deeply felt connection with something greater and the basic essence of various experiences.


An indicator, generally in movement, language, verbal tone, or other nonverbal signal, that carries meaning. (see channels)

Stopping the World

The process of collapsing our worldview and belief systems so that the ‘world’ as we usually apprehend it no longer has a hold over us and we are able to enter second attention. (The Shaman’s Body)


An apparently meaningful coincidence in time of two or more similar or identical events that are causally unrelated. These are combinations of psychological and world or physical experiences.


The basic, eternal principle of the universe that transcends reality and is the source of being, nonbeing, and change. The dreaming river, or background process, which is trying to happen.

Team work

A team is a group of “beasts of burden” (Webster). Teamwork is a team process where everyone knows the team’s Big U.

A belief that natural phenomena are determined not only by mechanical causes but by an over-all design or purpose in nature, or that there is a final or future cause.

The Double
The Double is a mysterious aspect of psychological and spiritual teachings the world over. Simply, it is who you as a whole – who you really are independent of time and space. (The Shaman’s Body)

Urban Shamanism

Shamanism as practiced by western mainstream people working with spirits, shape shifting and magic to transform situations and symptoms. A practice—which has roots in Indigenous Shamanism and mysticism—of following seemingly unrelated experiences such as synchronicities, flirts, somatic experience, momentary visual or auditory hallucinations and nature; accepting them as meaningful for understanding the present moment; and using their message to shift one’s own awareness and way of intervening.

Vector Energies
Using the names: energy-x to represent the strength or quality of the agent identified as something else that makes us trouble and distress; energy-u to represent themselves and their reaction in relation to energy x disturbing, energy-U (or Big U) represents the quality, intelligence or universal wisdom behind the scenario / system in which energy-x and energy-u interface with antagonistic roles (polarization).

Arrows. Vectors are the mathematical term for arrows. We use vectors to mean your subjective or dreamlike sense of earth-based direction. The earth pulls or moves you in certain directions at different times. When you walk and follow the direction of vector of any experience, you may feel a sense of energy, power, and rhythm, which may tell you about the meaning of the path. The fundamental tool in earth-based psychology to determine where we are headed, where we are going, and the nature of our momentary personal or community directions.

Warriorship (Being a Warrior)
The warrior is someone who has the courage to know herself or who faces her own fear It is a condition of openness to actively daring the truth about oneself and a willingness to be vulnerable in expressing one’s own inner experience, feelings, and views. To be a warrior is to learn to be genuine in every moment of your life. (The Shaman’s Body) A warrior uses the accomplishments they have developed as a hunter to leave everyday reality and enter other world using second attention. The warrior is someone who has the courage to know herself or who faces her own fear It is a condition of openness to actively daring the truth about oneself and a willingness to be vulnerable in expressing one’s own inner experience, feelings, and views.
Worldwork is a small and large group method that uses Deep Democracy to address the issues of groups and organizations of all kinds. To resolve reality problems and enrich community experience, worldwork methods focus on employing the power of an organization’s or city’s dreamlike background (e.g., projections, gossip, roles, and creative fantasy). Worldwork facilitators listen to the land, do innerwork, practice outer communication skills involving role consciousness, signal and rank awareness to enrich organizational life. Worldwork has been successfully applied to the analysis of and work with multicultural, multileveled, Aboriginal communities, universities,
small and large international organizations, city hot spots, and world conflict zones. Worldwork awareness requires access to the Process mind.